The Introduction and Guidance of Ship to Ship operations
A ship-to-ship (STS) transfer operation is the transfer of cargo between seagoing ships positioned alongside each other, either while stationary or underway. Cargoes typically transferred via STS methods include crude oil, liquefied gas (LPG or LNG), bulk cargo and petroleum products.
For ship-to-ship operations, usually 3-5 pcs primary pneumatic fenders and 2-3pcs secondary pneumatic fenders are put between two ships, if transfer oil or liquefied gas, STS hoses will be used to connect two ships cargo oil systems or gas tanks. Pneumatic fenders usually are anchored by mooring ropes to one ship’s main deck bollards.